Discussion on “Educating for democracy” Harvard Graduate School of Education

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on December 14th, 2021 under Events | No Comments »

Aleksandra Hristov, director of Hristov consulting, as the member of Harvard Club of Serbia participated in discussion on “Educating for democracy” with Professor Meira Levinson (Harvard Graduate School of Education) with Harvard Alumni from Central and Southeastern Europe.

Mineco continues its scholarships for the best students at the Faculty of Mining and Geology

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on October 29th, 2021 under Events | No Comments »

Mineco congratulates Marija Petrović and Branko Kostić, students at the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade, for their award of this year’s Mineco-funded scholarships from the Euro for Knowledge Foundation.

As one of the largest mining investors in Serbia and the region, Mineco has for the past six years been donating funds for two non-refundable scholarships with a sum of 100,000 dinars to the best students of the Faculty of Mining and Geology.

The winners of this year’s Euro for Knowledge scholarships, donated by Mineco, are Marija Petrović from Velereč near Gornji Milanovac, with an average grade of 9.10 and Branko Kostić from Belgrade, with an average grade of 8.90, both fourth-year students at the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade, studying deposit exploration in the economic geology module.

Marija Petrović thanked the Euro for Knowledge Foundation and Mineco for the scholarship.

“Besides the financial support, this scholarship also means to me a confirmation that the work I have been putting in is not in vain. My thanks to Mineco for appreciating science and investing in young people”, said Marija and pointed out that it means a lot to her that she will have the opportunity to learn in practice how an important mining company operates in Serbia.

Her colleague Branko Kostić said that the scholarship he received would help him continue his studies just as successfully or even more successfully than before.

“I chose economic geology as a challenge, and this scholarship, donated by a mining company, confirms I was not wrong. Thanks to Mineco who decided to help in this way I hope that I will be able to reciprocate with my knowledge when I finish my studies”, added Branko Kostić.

This year, the Euro for Knowledge Foundation decided to award a total of six student scholarships of 100,000 dinars each in the school year 2021/22. This Foundation was established in 2010 to invest in knowledge, primarily in the education of young people.

Mineco donated funds to this Foundation for the sixth time, and since the selection of scholarship winners was again successful this year, it intends to continue its support in future.

Politics takes the lead

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on October 3rd, 2021 under Articles | No Comments »

Foto – Zoran Mrdja

BELGRADE, October 1, 2021 (FoNet news agency) – The current Pandemics is often misused for the political purposes, the consultant for the strategic communication Ms. Aleksandra Hristov says for FoNet series Destination, adding that in the crisis it is always forbidden to attempt to score the political points or otherwise attempt to profit, whereas it is essential to continuously communicate with the population. The following are Ms. Hristov’s main thoughts on this matter.

On the subject of the consequences of the corona pandemic for the society in general it has to be highlighted that sending the uneven and contradictory messages remains one of the main problems in the communication of the Center for Disease Control in Serbia (CDCS) towards the citizens (in Serbia).

The general public has noticed that the political part (and not the professional) of the CDCS always prevails, and consequently the trust in their measures is eroded.

This has a very detrimental effect to what is to be achieved, namely the protection of the population against the transmissible disease as the practice of CDCS of criticizing the citizens behavior must be condemned.

In the past several days the vast majority of medical doctors have again warned about the dramatic increase of newly infected with the corona virus while for the past three weeks the CDCS pompously announces the introduction of the Covid-19 certificates, whereas at the same time one of its own board members says that this particular measure is not necessary.

Serbia currently does not have the strong anti vaccination movement but the population nevertheless does not trust anyone anymore as it is one of the results of the wrong way of public communicating.

When promised, it is imperative that all the rules are put forward and implemented together with the defined sanctions for those who fail to comply, otherwise the citizens continue to behave as they find appropriate.

In principle every action is loaded with the responsibility, and CDCS evidently does not feel the moral obligation to resign because their recommendations are either not implemented or produce the low numbers of vaccinated individuals.

Almost all the individuals are capable of understanding practically any situation but they need to be communicated to properly with including the education effort and detailed explanations, without the key information being concealed, scoring points and contradictory messaging.

The strong impression is that the CDCS uses only one channel of communication (official state news outlets), and always talking to one particular part of the public and not to the entire population.

In the past the CDCS news media conferences used to be organized, and that has now ceased, whereas the social media networks followed by the younger generation have always been uniformly neglected.

Today you can say that everyone follows a different news venue option, consequently it is necessary to cover all the target groups, no discriminatory news companies selection for announcements is advisable, including the selective appearances of officials in just a few particular outlets.

Thanks to such selective approach the CDCS looks as if always talking to the same targeted group of people, showing that its own board members have not thought through how to communicate with the citizens.

The CDCS could improve its public communication effect by using all the channels available towards all the target groups.

Aleksandra Hristov at NOVA.RS portal on the merits of the state crisis council

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on July 30th, 2021 under Events | 1 Comment »

WHAT ARE THE MERITS OF THE STATE CRISIS COUNCIL IN SERBIA FOR THE WEEK VACCINATION RESPONSE
THE TRUST SQUANDERED
The consultant for the strategic and crisis communication Aleksandra Hristov points out that the various countries have managed this pandemic in different ways, and the effects in each case can currently be seen in the attitudes of the public in abiding by the prescribed measures and their enrollment in the vaccination effort.
“That is undoubtedly one of the parameters of the success in managing this crisis. At the beginning of the pandemic the entire Serbia every day at 3 PM was watching the press conferences from the State Crisis Council (SCC) headquarters, and the public widely believed them. However, the contradictory messages from the SCC, especially coupled with the opposing opinions from the political and expert part of the Council, and with the political part always dominant in decision making, we are now witnessing that during 2020 the public trust was lost towards getting any information from that important source. One of the main effects of such crisis management is the general mistrust among the majority of citizens. Consequently, in spite of having the abundance of each of the four types of vaccines offered in Serbia, very few individuals opted to be vaccinated”, says Hristov.
She stressed the fact that trust once lost is very hard to earn again.
“At the same time, despite the widely held correct belief that the crisis always carries new opportunities, in the crisis you can not design a successful plan to score the political points by intent, and that pertains to any organization or country in any crisis. The crisis is managed by systemic and consistent implementation of the singular set of well thought through messages”, adds our interlocutor.
THE CAMPAIGN AND THE UNCOMPROMISED EXPERTS
“If we exclude the measure of mandatory vaccination, that by law here exists, the solution is to change the body in charge of the crisis, which is now hard to do because the trust has been largely spent. For the efficient change of the atmosphere during any crisis, together with the attitude of the majority of the participants and observers, the key is not only in the new actions proposed, but more importantly who is proposing them. Only that can produce the rapid turnaround and the situation change. That new body (new SCC) must be made of the credible individuals who have not damaged their reputations during the crisis, and only those therefore have the necessary authority to come up with the believable economic and health prognosis, and to decide about the actions to recommend to the state to implement. Those newly appointed persons must have the coordinated slogans so that the public can understand how to a behave and what is beneficial to their and theirs siblings’ health and wellbeing”, continues Hristov.
She added that unfortunately, the individuals with the personal and professional integrity very often refuse or very much hesitate to participate in solving the crisis if invited by those who already squandered the public trust and are profoundly responsible for creating the bad situation.
“In addition to all this, it is necessary to organize the vaccination campaign geared towards the younger population by using the communication channels that are familiar to them, such as social networks and peer education”, emphasized Hristov.

Business Magazine article “The uncertainty is still enormous”

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on May 5th, 2021 under Articles | No Comments »

In the Business Magazine latest edition, at the section about the challenges for the communication and marketing professions in 2021 and the priorities in the second year of the pandemic crisis, Aleksandra Hristov the director and owner of the Hristov consulting d.o.o. in her article has focused on the great uncertainty in the economy, and the imperative of redefining of the existing business and consequently communication strategies.

THE ABILITY TO ADAPT AND THE COMMUNICATION STRATEGY IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE SURVIVAL

“Never let a good crisis go to waste”, Winston Churchill said during the World War II, and he won in the end. It is always necessary to be brave, think outside the box, to find opportunity, and adapt to the new times.

We are almost in the middle of 2021., and the economies around the world are still trying to find the answer to several key questions – how long is this pandemic going to last, what is the depth of the economic crisis after the pandemic going to be, and at the very least how is that crisis going to effect the operations and survival of the specific industries and sectors. All these are undoubtedly the challenges for the corporations and their consultants that handle the strategic communications.

It is already a well known belief the Internet brought the changes that surpass those brought by the industrial revolution. Such abrupt advancements in history had always created socio-economic change that disrupted the functioning of the economies, society and the entire countries. The current pandemic only accelerated such environment that ensured internet presence, social networks and the new media shall increase as the preeminent channels of communication in the future.

However, this does not pertain equally and in the same manner to all the industries and organizations. Therefore, in order to meaningfully follow the trends and recognize new opportunities it is necessary for them to engage the qualified business consultants who can help give the efficient and timely guidance in change management and communication strategy during these turbulent times. It is almost guaranteed that the change is going to be profound, and that such challenges shall affect Serbia sometime shortly after the rest of Europe.

In the context of such developments, it is imperative to immediately prepare and establish the structured and continuous individual client tailored following, analysis and opportunities recognition of the pertinent business areas and related main venues of communication. Based on that, the client’s strategies of communication have to be closely monitored and adjusted in relation to particular companies’ and organizations’ needs. It has been proven during any uncertain times, the thinking outside the established patterns and “boxes” is usually one of the best options to consider. Nevertheless, the things that are certain to survive as paramount are the established trust, good business ethics, and the organizational culture that is bent on serving clients while remaining committed to its own employees’ satisfaction.

The economic crisis of 2008., like every previous time of change, has shown that the science and art of the public strategic communication is absolutely crucial for the survival and future path to new found success of any serious business, organization and institution.

Aleksandra Hristov
CEO, Hristov consulting, member of the  Association of Management  Consultants of Serbia

Propaganda and the public: The enemy of the public interest that is hard to overcome

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on May 24th, 2020 under Articles | 1 Comment »

The Hristov Consulting team is made of the consultants with many years of experience in the area of strategic communication and media.
The organizational culture of the firm is based on shared ethical work values that enable us to always provide to our clients, in their business and institutional endeavors, the unquestionable added value.
We are proud to announce the text authored by our senior consultant Ms. Gordana Lazarevic, recently published in the latest issue of “Novi Magazin“, titled
.

The most important fact, which is both the beginning and outcome of every discussion about propaganda, is that it is conflicting with journalism, equally incompatible with public relations, equally irreconcilable with marketing and promotion and most of all, that it is an enemy of the public good and society as a whole.
Propaganda is the systemic manipulation of people which intentionally pollutes facts, utters half-truths and spreads fake news. It does incorporate accurate information, but incompletely, chosen to validate the message of propaganda. There is no particular need to further remark on why this is harmful to the public’s interest, at the core of which lies the right for us to be correctly informed and to make decisions based on this information.
This should be the end of every discussion on propaganda, with a possible recollection of historical examples and an analysis of the harm it inflicts whenever utilised. As the scope of propaganda grew, so did its harmful effects. In today’s world, however, this does not end the story, as we don’t have that “happy ending”. We cannot say that we have learned from previous generations’ experience nor that we have grasped the moral within the situations we had witnessed ourselves.
CONSTRAINED CITIZENS: Of course, as in the past, the primary outlet for propaganda has been the media, which has changed and evolved, but the significance of this “utility” has remained constant. The reason for this is perfectly logical – the media is the fastest and most efficient way to spread messages. The only “catch” is that news outlets should not be allowed to do this since it is utterly contradictory with their central and most important mission – to provide the public with truthful, timely and complete information on all questions of public interest. This also means that their task should be to recognise propaganda and expose it. All of is because people should make decisions not based on intuition, but rather information and reason. Now, of course, there is no news outlet out there that does not claim to do just that, and as consumers of media, whether through our professions or as citizens, we chose whom we believe.
In Serbia today, the mood is such that most people would claim not to believe any outlet fully. Media outlets have lost the public’s trust for various reasons, and not only propaganda is to blame for this. A large amount, one could even say too large, of classic news outlets have encountered, due to the advent of social media, an extreme amount of competition, causing a great crisis in which they fight for survival in a non-journalistic fashion, with quantity rather than quality – a quantity of unprofessionally put-together articles and reports. And here we see fertile ground for propaganda. This crisis trickles down even to outlets that labour to serve their function professionally. They have fewer “followers” and therefore, less influence, smaller capacities and a limited reach. Their access to relevant sources is restrained, as well.
I’m afraid that at the moment, I’m in the defeatist camp, as I don’t see an escape out of this situation. Invoking self-regulation in media and or personal ethics of journalists seems to me like a fight with an immortal and armed-to-the-teeth robot against an inept kid armed with only a pure conscience. On the other hand, one can’t remain silent lest they become an accessory, or even the one guilty of the murder of truth. This applies, I have to emphasise, especially to people working in public relations, whether in agencies, companies, organisations or institutions.
PROPAGANDISTS VS. THE MEDIA: I don’t know exactly when, but certainly more than a decade ago, when I was still working in journalism, there came a moment when so-called PRs started to intensively work toward dictating the news to media outlets. I am not saying that this had never happened before, but it seemed to be on a whole different level. We were suddenly getting all these requests and pressure on journalists to “integrally” publish what they had sent or said. They also started “defending” their clients by breaking off all contact with journalists or only speaking to select ones, over whom they had some control.
By a significant margin, most PRs at the time did their job incorrectly. What we had wasn’t “public relations” work guided by ethics or professionality. I had the impression that all this wasn’t done by PRs but by the executors of their clients’ bidding. Instead of representing a bridge between the media and the public on one hand, and their clients on the other, they represented a gigantic ramp that is raised only for some. And when it is raised, they tightly control what can and cannot pass through – and there is no guarantee that what does pass is truthful and complete information. Among their clients, the role of the PR was also understood and accepted in completely the wrong way – as a marketing tool even for falsities, packaged as sparse announcements or addresses in bought time-spaces of electronic media, with already formulated “appropriate” questions. Of course, not all PRs or their clients acted in this way. The dominant impression was, however, that this was the “business model” of the majority. As time passed, nothing had improved.
Many people presenting themselves as PRs work as “propagandists” (I am not sure if this word exists on any list of professions). Their arsenal of weapons is getting larger, but all of it mostly comes down to finances, on which, of course, all news outlets rely. And yes, I do think that this model is entirely OPPOSED to the media and entirely OPPOSED to the public’s interests. I am also certain that we, as a society, are paying the price for the propaganda we view, listen to or read, but I sure as well that we are yet to pay the full price. Here lies my curiosity, will we as a society be able to at some point recognise this or will we be so manipulated and “overfed” that we’ll haul propaganda around with us forever? That said, I’m unsure as to whether I, even with my tenure in media and information, always recognise propaganda.
QUESTIONS WITHOUT ANSWERS: Though I see no escape, I still harbour some hope. It is personified by the part of society that performs their work professionally, whatever that work may be. Such people exist, to be sure, both in journalism and in PR. To be precise, in PR, my line of work, for every door we need opened, we use the truth, verified and complete information as keys. We build the reputation of our clients on their actions, but also the insistence on always laying out the full truth and standing by everything released to the public. We will advise them on how to address the public, we will help them be available, we will answer every question from journalists, but we will not allow the “bending” of the truth to their detriment, nor their benefit. We will fight so that the media receive information on our clients because it is reliable and important to the public interest, not because it is paid for or “whitewashed”.
The previous paragraph may seem to many as an advertisement, in which we claim to be better than others. No, this is not my goal. I believe this is how all skilled PRs work. Furthermore, those who truly need the services of a genuine PR look for and can find one here and all over the world. The question lies in when to “secede” from the “propagandists” and propaganda, and this is a question both for the media and PR. I’m afraid that, as of yet, no such answer exists, neither domestically or globally.
Gordana Lazarević
The author is a consultant at Hristov Consulting.

How to communicate with the stakeholders workshop for the Independent Journalists Association of Serbia

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on March 3rd, 2020 under Events | 1 Comment »

Belgrade – the director of Hristov Consulting, Ms. Aleksandra Hristov, the certified management consultant (CMC) in the area of strategic communications, had recently conducted the workshop “How to communicate with the stakeholders” for the members of the Executive Board and the Secretariat of the Independent Journalists’ Association of Serbia (NUNS).
The workshop has included defining and analyzing the notions of stakeholder and the targeted activities, interactions of such activities and organisations, ways of conducting the influence on stakeholders, and how to communicate and deal with them. This interactive workshop was originally created for the companies’ managements, any organisations, institutions and individuals.
“I am very pleased that I got this opportunity to, as a former journalist and long time member of NUNS, have this workshop that could help this organisation develop and progress. The mission of NUNS is to, by taking the strong and proactive action in public, increase the rights of its members and all media workers in Serbia, while systemically advancing the professional standards and promoting the ethically responsible journalism.
The workshop “How to communicate with the stakeholders” is interactive, therefore all participants, through their conversations and practice sheets, got the practical guidelines and tools for successful communication with their stakeholders.

Biznis Magazin and Ekonometar Magazines Fifteenth birthday

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on February 25th, 2020 under Events | 1 Comment »

Ekonometar and Magazin Biznis Magazines celebrated 15 years of successful publishing on Monday February 24th.
At Belgrade’s Crown Plaza Hotel, in front of a large audience, it was presented that for over a decade and a half, these magazines have been an important source of information for business people as well as anyone else interested in economy and entrepreneurship
On this occasion, the traditional awards of “Planet Business” were awarded. This year the winners are: Dragan Filipovic, General Manager of Generally Insurance, Djordjo Markedjani, Director of DDOR, Zoja Kukic, Program Director for Startup Development “Digital Serbia”, Zorica Selakovic, owner of “Dezert” company in Cacak and Goran Jovic, director of Regional Chamber of Commerce of Pcinja and Jablanica District.
Founder of these magazines, Radojka Nikolic, editor-in-chief, expressed her satisfaction that these magazines were able to survive in difficult circumstances and to have an enviable rating on the Serbian media scene in the category of economic and business press. She expressed hope that Serbia had higher rates of economic growth and emphasized that as a society we should turn more to the economy than politics.
As part of the celebration, a mini panel was held on Serbian economy before and now, led by Aleksandar Vlahovic former Minister of Economy and Privatization, and Marko Cadez the current President of the Serbian Chamber of Commerce, who is also the face of the latest front page.
Congratulates to Biznis Magazin and Ekonometar  Magazines for decade and a half of successful work, with the belief that it will be even more successful in the future.

Serbias Notaries have performed 367,121 free document certifications in 2019

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on February 13th, 2020 under Events | 1 Comment »

Notaries of Serbia achieved remarkable results during 2019, as evidenced by the fact that during that period they issued more than 250,000 documents, in the form of records and solemnization, which implies the drawing up, verification and confirmation of real estate contracts, lifelong support and other contracts in other property relationships.
The 250,000 cases registered in the General Business Register of 197 Serbian notaries are significant not only as statistics but also as an indicator of the extent to which notaries of Serbia have contributed to the increase of legal certainty in real estate transactions and other affairs, said the President of the Serbian Chamber of Notaries Srbislav Cvejic, presenting some of the most important results of notaries in 2019.
Cvejić also said that due to the work of notaries, fraudulent real estate sales were avoided and that the number of court proceedings regarding contractual disputes was significantly reduced.
The SCN President emphasized the great support and assistance provided by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia from the outset, which continues to work on improving the technical capacity of the notary system, as well as on strengthening the position and expanding the competences and network of notaries.
Cvejic recalled that Serbia’s notaries celebrated 5 years since the introduction of notaries in the legal system in 2019, and it is clear that in that short time they were able to fulfill the most important functions – to protect the rights of parties, to speed up and control legal transactions and unburden the judiciary system. In five years, Serbia’s notaries have done more than eight million legal transactions under their jurisdiction, most of them certifications – about 7 million.
The great success of Serbian Chamber of Notaries in Serbia is that in 2019 they were able to complete as many as 367,121 certifications of documents, thus relieving the state institutions, especially during period of high school and college enrollment. In 2019, in June and July, more than 122,000 free copies of documents were notarized across Serbia, while some 245,000 documents were completed in the remaining 10 months.
In addition to the documents for the first enrollment in high schools and colleges, notaries notarized documents for the purposes of the competition for admission to dorms and student standards institutions, as well as for the competition for the use of student scholarships and loans. In addition to certification of these documents, certifications for enrollment in pre-school institutions and primary schools are also performed free of charge, as well as certification of signatures and transcripts or photocopies of documents used for social security, social protection, veterans-disabled protection and protection of civilian war invalids.
Notaries publicly certify, free of charge, documents for providing financial support for a family with children, as well as the documentation for victims of domestic violence. In addition, it is free of charge to certify the documents of unemployed persons necessary for the establishment of an employment relationship, or other rights conferred on that basis.
According to the President of the SCN, the results achieved in the last five years prove the extent to which both the public notary system in Serbia and the work of the Chamber of Notaries were developed in a short time. Cvejic emphasized the efficient work of a large number of notary offices, which were able to speed up the implementation of inheritance procedures, for which they are entrusted by the courts. “Inheritance procedures for public notaries are now effectively conducted, ending in a very short time,” Cvejic said.
The goal of the Serbian Chamber of Notaries is to further work on the advancement of the profession, and to fill more vacancies for notaries, which should be 370, for the territory of the entire Republic of Serbia. “Expanding the network of notaries is one of our priorities. We must work to ensure that public notaries are equally accessible to all citizens, “Cvejic said.
According to the president of the SCN, the Chamber has faced many challenges in the past years, the biggest one that citizens accept them as professionals, lawyers who improve legal certainty with their work. “We believe that we have made great strides in this direction so far, and we can promise that we will continue to work hard in the future and that we will strengthen our network and capacities,” Cvejic added.
The SCN also continuously provides training for notaries and notary assistants and associates, and constantly works to harmonize notary public practice. “It is extremely important for the Chamber to control the work of all notaries. We demand strict compliance with all laws and regulations by our members and sanction any violation of regulations within our ranks, “said Cvejic.

Fonet published opinion editorial about disinformation and propaganda

Posted by Aleksandra Hristov on February 8th, 2020 under Articles | 1 Comment »

FoNet, the oldest private news agency in Serbia with the independent editorial policy, has recently published the digested version of my opinion editorial from the leading Serbian weekly Novi Magazin.
p030220.062
SRB- KIOSK – MEDIA
IN THE SERVICE OF CONFLICT
BELGRADE, February 03, 2020
The governments around the world are currently the most serious creators of the fake news and propaganda content, suggests Ms. Aleksandra Hristov, the Internationally Certified Management Consultant in the area of Strategic Communication.
Ms. Hristov, the director of Hristov Consulting, in her analysis „PR in the service of Conflict“, explains  that   the media should work in the public interest, while PR generally works in the interest of its clients. Where these interests overlap, cooperation is both necessary and possible, stated Hristov in her recent opinion editorial for Serbian weekly Novi Magazin.
However, she warned we are often confronted with the situation whereby our profession is used as  an instrument in the hands of those who have their own specific goals, and who do not hesitate to choose any means to achieve them.
As a rule, stated Hristov, those who knowingly agree to be an instrument of the special interests, without following the professional  codes, are eventually always abused and victimized by their own clients.
Whereas, the PR sector, if it does its job properly, is an ally of the media, and contributing to the safeguarding of the public interest and the development of the society as a whole.
Hristov goes on to conclude that the European Union officials very often do not see or understand how much the freedom of the media in Serbia is endangered, including the undermining of the public benefit and the democracy itself. In addition to that, the most of the principles prescribed by the laws and the codes are habitually not applied in practise, or to a lesser extent even abused. When bots, trolls and other “helpers” are added to this, it’s almost impossible to explain to the visiting foreign officials and experts what this is all about.
Referring to the existing EU Study, she notes that elements of disinformation and propaganda includes the information that is designed to be wholly or partially false, manipulative or misleading, or is using the unethical retelling techniques
Ms. Hristov has emphasised that the disinformation and propaganda are always intended to create insecurity, hostility or polarization in the society, or is attempting to disrupt the democratic processes. They are spread and / or amplified by the automated and aggressive techniques, such as social bots, artificial intelligence, micro-targeting, or paid human “trolls”, and are used to increase the public visibility of its sources.
Additionally, she mentions the public statement made by Richard Stengel, a former chief editor of The Time magazine and the undersecretary of State during the Obama administration, who defined disinformation as an intentional fraudulent content used to deceive someone. Furthermore, Stengel connects the raise of the authoritarian leaders to the spread of internet and sophisticated methods of using of the media and information in general.
Leaders in these situations limit the dissemination of information they do not want, while promoting the information they desire, which is a very dangerous combination.
The end 15:24

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